First World Royal, expensive gold
The Danish chemist Oster used the dilute potassium amalgam to react with aluminum chloride to separate the impure metallic aluminum for the first time.
In 1827, the German chemist Muller repeated Oster's experiment and continuously improved the method of making aluminum.
In 1854, the French chemist Deville mixed aluminum bauxite, charcoal and salt, and then introduced chlorine gas to obtain NaCl, AlCl? double salt, and then the double salt and excess sodium were melted to obtain metal aluminum.
In 1854, the German chemist Deville used sodium instead of potassium to reduce aluminum chloride to produce aluminum ingots.
In 1886, the United States' Howe and France's Hailangte independently produced a mixture of electrolytically molten bauxite and cryolite (Na3AlF6) to produce metal aluminum, which laid the foundation for large-scale production of aluminum in the future.
In the coming period, aluminum is a treasure enjoyed by the emperors. The Thai king used an aluminum bracelet and the French emperor Napoleon III used an aluminum fork at the banquet. At the Paris Expo in 1855, it was displayed with the jewels on the crown, with the label "Silver from clay". In 1889, Mendeleev also received vases and cups made of aluminum alloy from the London Chemical Society.
The second world fell into a trough and the fate was rewritten
By the end of the 19th century, the price of aluminum had fallen thousands of times.
First of all, because of the improved generators in the 1970s, Siemens had cheap electricity;
Secondly, in 1886, the method of dissolving alumina in cryolite (Na3AlF6) was developed by Heroult of France and C. M. Hall of the United States. They were all 22 years old at the time. This pioneering work has enabled aluminum to be produced on a large scale, setting the industrial method for electrolytic aluminum in the world today.
The third earth pillar, with its own aura
World aluminum production has been the leading producer of ferrous metals since 1956. At present, the output and dosage of aluminum (in tons) is second only to steel and the second largest metal for human use. Moreover, aluminum is rich in resources. According to preliminary calculations, the storage of aluminum accounts for more than 8% of the constituents of the earth's crust. .
Today, aluminum has entered thousands of households and is closely related to human work and life. With the rapid development of technology, aluminum processing technology has been continuously upgraded, which has produced extensive and far-reaching influences in various industries. So far, various aluminum products have been widely used in thousands of households.
Aluminum has a very low density of only 2.7 g/cm. Although it is relatively soft, it can be made into various aluminum alloys such as hard aluminum, super-hard aluminum, rust-proof aluminum, and cast aluminum. These aluminum alloys are widely used in the manufacturing industries of airplanes, automobiles, trains, and ships. In addition, a large number of aluminum and its aluminum alloys are used in space rockets, space shuttles, and satellites. For example, a supersonic aircraft consists of approximately 70% aluminum and its aluminum alloy. Aluminum is also used extensively in the construction of ships, and the amount of aluminum used in a large passenger ship often reaches several thousand tons. .
The conductivity of aluminum is second only to silver, copper and gold. Although its conductivity is only 2/3 of that of copper, the density is only 1/3 of that of copper. Therefore, the same amount of electricity is delivered. The quality of aluminum wire is only half of that of copper wire. . The oxide film on the aluminum surface is not only resistant to corrosion but also has a certain degree of insulation, so aluminum has a wide range of uses in the electrical appliance manufacturing industry, the wire and cable industry, and the radio industry.
Aluminum is a good conductor of heat. Its thermal conductivity is three times higher than that of iron. Aluminum can be used in the manufacture of various heat exchangers, heat-dissipating materials and cookware.
Aluminum has good ductility (its ductility is second only to gold and silver) and can be made into aluminum foil thinner than 0.01 mm at 100 °C to 150 °C. These aluminum foils are widely used for packaging cigarettes, candy, etc., and can also be made into aluminum wire, aluminum strips, and can roll various aluminum products.
The surface of aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to its dense oxide protective film and is often used in the manufacture of chemical reactors, medical devices, refrigeration units, petroleum refining units, and oil and gas pipelines.
Aluminum powder has a silver-white luster (generally the color of the metal is mostly black in the case of powder), which is commonly used as a coating, commonly known as silver powder, silver paint, to protect the iron products from corrosion, and beautiful.
Aluminum burning in oxygen can release a lot of heat and dazzling light, often used in the manufacture of explosive mixtures, such as ammonium aluminum explosives (mixed with ammonium nitrate, charcoal powder, aluminum powder, soot and other combustible organic matter), combustion mixture (such as bombs and shells made of aluminothermic agents can be used to attack hard-to-fire targets or tanks, cannons, etc.) and lighting mixtures (such as 68% cerium nitrate, 28% aluminum powder, 4% shellac).
Aluminotherms are commonly used to smelt refractory metals and welded rails. Aluminum is also used as a deoxidizer in steel making. Aluminum powder and graphite, titanium dioxide (or other high melting point metal oxides) are uniformly mixed at a certain ratio, coated on metal, and calcined at high temperature to form high temperature resistant cermet. It has important applications in rocket and missile technology. .
The aluminum plate also has good reflection performance on light. The reflected ultraviolet light is stronger than silver. The purer the aluminum, the better the reflection ability, so it is commonly used to manufacture high quality mirrors, such as solar cooker mirrors.
Aluminum has sound absorbing properties and sound effects are good, so aluminum is also used in broadcast rooms and ceilings in modern large-scale architectural rooms.
Low temperature resistance, aluminum at the low temperature, its strength is increased without brittleness, so it is ideal for low temperature device materials, such as refrigerators, freezer, Antarctic snowmobile, hydrogen oxide production equipment.
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