Simply put, “water treatment” is the process of removing some harmful substances in the water that are not needed for production and life through physical, chemical and biological means. It is a process of water conditioning, such as sedimentation, filtration, coagulation, flocculation, and corrosion inhibition and scale inhibition for a specific application. Because social production and life are closely related to water.
1. The hardness of water:
Some metal cations in water, combined with some anions, in the process of heating water, due to evaporation and concentration, easy to form scale, attached to the heating surface and affect heat conduction, we call the total concentration of these metal ions in water called water hardness. Since the concentration of other metal ions in water is very low, the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions in water is usually regarded as the hardness of water.
2. Acidity and alkalinity of water:
A negative value of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of water indicates the pH of the water, that is, the pH of the water, less than 7 is alkaline, 7 is neutral, and greater than 7 is acidic.
3. Conductivity (T.D.S):
The conductivity of water, the reciprocal of the resistance of water, is often used to indicate the purity of water. Because water contains various soluble salts, it exists in the form of ions. When there are electrodes in the water, these ions can make the water conductive, so the degree of conductivity of the water is called conductivity.
4. Soluble solids:
The content of soluble ions in water.
5. The smell of water:
The odor emitted by the aquatic animals, plants, or microorganisms in the water to produce and rot; the odor emitted by the decomposition of organic matter in water; the soluble gases of water such as SO2, H2S, NH3; the dissolved salts or the soil The odor and industrial waste water discharged into the water contain odors such as petroleum and phenol, and the smell of chlorine gas added to the process of disinfecting water.
6. The color of water:
The chromaticity of water is an indicator for quantitatively measuring the color of natural water or various water after treatment. The reason for the color is due to humus, organic matter or inorganic substances dissolved in water. Industrial wastewater can also produce a wide variety of colors in water bodies. For example: clay - yellow, iron oxide - brown, sulfide - light blue, algae - green, spoiled organic - dark brown.
The degree of turbidity caused by the colorless and transparent water is called turbidity because the water contains particles in a suspended state and a colloidal state. Turbidity is an optical effect that is obstructed by the passage of light through the water layer and indicates the ability of the water layer to scatter and absorb light.
8. Reverse Osmosis (R.O.):
A method of desalination that applies a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure to pass water through the semipermeable membrane to remove impurities and bacteria from the water.
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